Ecotoxicology, Photosynthesis, Fluorescense

P. K. Mohapatra

Room No.

+91-9437356901

pradiptamoha@yahoo.com

Prof. P. K. Mohapatra completed his Ph.D. from Department of Botany, Utkal University in the field of Ecotoxicology of OP insecticides. As a Fellow of Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, he did his Post-Doctoral Research at Universität Rostock, Germany on the impact of Op insecticides on photosynthetic pigment fluorescence and thylakoid membrane function. He has about thirty years of experience in academics, research and administration. His teaching expertise lies in photosynthesis and enzymology covering the fields of light and dark reactions, photorespiration, biotic and abiotic stress effects on photosynthetic pigments and photosystems, enzyme kinetics and inhibitors designing for enzyme regulation. He also teaches toxicokinetics of environmental chemicals like pesticides, metals and hydrocarbons. His research fields primarily cover the chlorophyll fluorescence behavior under biotic and abiotic stress conditions and analysis of the mechanism of stress effects. He has expertise in determining plant health and growth potential by fluorescence analysis. He has authored various publications in journals of international and national repute. Additionally, he has authored 3 text books and edited 5 books. Prof. Mohapatra has been conferred the Fellow of National Environmentalist Association (FNEA) and is the recipient of ‘Harihar Memorial Award’ for his contribution in Algology. Apart from academics and research, he has discharged the duties in administrative positions as Head of the Department, Dean School of Life Sciences, Chairman, Council of Deans, Professor in Charge, Kanika Library and Chief Proctor at Ravenshaw University. Currently, he holds the position of Director, IQAC, in the University.

Selected Publications

  1. Shasmita, Samal, P., Mohapatra, P.K., Naik, S.K. and Mukherjee A.K. (2020) Improved photosystem II and defense enzymes activity in rice (Oryza sativa) by biopriming against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Functional Plant Biology https://doi.org/10.1071/
  2. Mohapatra P. K., Panda Debasmita and Mishra Manasweta (2020) Photosystem I: A revisit of structure and function.(submitted as book chapter on 2nd April, 2020).
  3. Acharya S., Pradhan C., Patra D. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2020) Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidative properties of different extracts of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L.Submitted to European Journal of Integrative Medicine 36: 101140.
  4. Mohapatra D., Rath S. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2021) Evaluating a preparation of malathion tolerant Aspergillus niger MRU01 for accelerated removal of four organophosphorus insecticides. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 96(6): 1603-1610.
  5. Pattanaik, S., Chanda A. and Mohapatra P. K. (2021) Aquatic biogeochemistry of the estuarine and coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal: Impact of physical forcing and extreme atmospheric events. In: Das S., and Ghosh T. (eds.), Estuarine Biogeochemical Dynamics of the East Coast of India, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 31-44.
  • Group
  • Research
  • Publications
  • Teaching

Ph.D. Scholars Continuing

Priyanka Priyadarshinee

Thesis Title: Utilization of cyanobacteria to test pesticide contamination and accelerated biodegradation.

Sophia Subhadarsini Pradhan

Thesis Title: Bioremediation of Tetracycline and Streptomycin in Rice Soil.

Ph.D. Awarded

Sobhana S. Panda

Ph.D. awarded in 1999

Subhasish Bal

Ph.D. awarded in 2002

Prasant Kumar Samantaray

Ph.D. awarded in 2002

Mruduhashini Sahoo

Ph.D. awarded in 2007

Gopali Bardhan

Ph.D. awarded in 2011

Prasad Kumar Dash

Ph.D. awarded in 2011

Debasmita Chhotaray

Ph.D. awarded in 2012

Bishnupriya Hansdah

Ph.D. awarded in 2015

Anita Mohanty

Ph.D. awarded in 2015

Srinivas Acharya

Ph.D. awarded in 2016

Shyam Sundar Gupta

Ph.D. awarded in 2016

Y. Chandrakala

Ph.D. awarded in 2017

Pramodini Raut

Ph.D. awarded in 2018

Aryabala Nayak

Ph.D. awarded in 2018

Suchismita Pattanaik

Ph.D. awarded in 2019

Debashis Mohapatra

Ph.D. awarded in 2020

Jyotirmayee Dash

Ph.D. awarded in 2020

Pradeep Kumar Kamila

Ph.D. awarded in 2021

M.Phil.

  1. Kichak Chandra Jena (1999)

    Title: Effect of nutrient limitation on growth responses and competing ability of different planktonic green algal species grown in microcosms.
  2. Suchismita Patra (2000)

    Title: Response of the photosynthetic pigments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaj to the toxicity of cypermethrin.
  3. Sagyan Sudeshna (2001)

    Title: Combination effects of insecticides on growth and biochemical composition of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris.
  4. Kshanaprabha Mohapatra (2002)

    Title:Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in municipal waste water of Bhubaneswar at Vani Vihar lake site.
  5. Ashok Kumar Lenka (2003)

    Title: Effect of cypermethrin on growth and biochemical composition of Anabaena doliolum Bhar as influenced by nutrients.
  6. Arun Kumar Mohanty (2004)

    Title: Algal flora of rice fields of Soro locality, Orissa as affected by agricultural application of monocrotophos.
  7. Sudipta Dash (2005)

    Title: Tolerance mechanism of Synechosystis sp. PCC 6803 to monocrotophos and dimethoate.
  8. Aryabala Nayak (2006)

    Title: Organophosphorus treatment enhances pigment fluorescence in Anabaena doliolum Bhar.
  9. Minati Desinayak (2006)

    Title: The role of Co and Zn in tolerance development of Anabaena doliolum Bhar to dimethoate.
  10. Priyambada R. Biswal (2008)

    Title: Biochemical and in vitro studies of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa., Citrus cinensis (L.) Osbeck and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skills.
  11. Nibedita Nayak (2009)

    Title: Biochemical changes in the microbial assemblage of rice field soil in response to treatment with insecticides.
  12. Y. Chandrakala (2010)

    Title: Analysis of tolerance of Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 to cypermethrin.
  13. Suprava Mallick (2011)

    Title: Effect of cypermethrin on metabolic activities of microbes of rice field soil.
  14. Deepika Samantaray (2016)

    Title: To study the potential effectiveness of fungus Aspergillus fumigatus for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide malathion.
  15. Upasana Choudhury (2017)

    Title: Effect of pretilachlor and paraquat on Anabaena sp. PCC 7119.
  16. Debasmita Panda (2018)

    Title: The effect of metasulfuron methyl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acidon the photosynthetic activity of the green alga Scenedesmus bijugatus.
  17. Barsha Bhusan Swain (2021)

    Title: Combination of Salinity and Desiccation Stress on Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

Research covers four primary directions i) photosynthetic and physiological responses of algae to insecticide, herbicide and metal stress, ii) successional changes of the algal assemblage of rice fields in response to agrochemicals and agro-practices, iii) development of tolerance of fungi, cyanobacteria to OP and pyrethroid chemicals and the analysis of the mechanism of tolerance and iv) The photosynthetic pigment fluorescence and the prompt fluorescence transients analysis for determining species distribution, pigment dynamics, production efficiency and mechanism of effects of biotic and abiotic stressers on microalgae and higher plants.

P.K. Mohapatra, R. Khillar, B. Hansdah, R.C. Mohanty-Photosynthetic and fluorescence responses of Solanum melongena L. to field application of dimethoate. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73 (2010) 78–83: The Op insecticide increases PS II fluorescence by decreasing the PQ functional efficiency like a herbicide. Repeated treatment with the insecticide at field concentration increases degradation by enhanced esterase activity.

S. Jena, S. Acharya, P.K. Mohapatra- Variation in effects of four OP insecticides on photosynthetic pigment fluorescence of Chlorella vulgaris Beij, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 80 (2012) 111–117: Phosphorothioate OPs affect the acceptor side whereas the Vinyl OPs affect the donor side of PS II of intact cells.

Chhotaray, Y. Chandrakala, C. S. K. Mishra and P. K. Mohapatra-Farm practices influence the photosynthetic performance and plant efficiency of Oryza sativa L. Acta Physiologie Plantarum 36 (2014):1501–1511: Pigment fluorescence and photosynthetic efficiency are ditectly related to the density and metabolic activities of soil bacteria. 

Chhotaray, Y. Chandrakala, C. S. K. Mishra and P. K. Mohapatra-Farm practices influence the photosynthetic performance and plant efficiency of Oryza sativa L. Acta Physiologie Plantarum 36 (2014):1501–1511: Pigment fluorescence and photosynthetic efficiency are ditectly related to the density and metabolic activities of soil bacteria. 

Shasmita, P. Samal, P. K. Mohapatra, S. K. Naik and A. K. Mukherjee-Improved photosystem II and defense enzymes activity in rice (Oryza sativa) by biopriming against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Functional Plant Biology https://doi.org/10.1071/FP20221: The induction of defence against BB disease by bio-priming with biotic agents, was studied as response in alteration of PSII and defence enzymes activity. Field experiment was conducted with the best biotic agent; i.e. B. subtilis obtained from all experiments to study whether defence induction by it have any side effect on rice yield and biomass. Net house and field experiments have suggested that among all the biotic agents studied, bio-priming of rice seeds with B. subtilis has  rotected the photosynthetic machinery of plants from being damaged by BB without having any detrimental effect on rice grain yield.

Debasish Mohapatra, Sakti K Rath and Pradipta K Mohapatra- Evaluating a preparation of malathion tolerant Aspergillus niger MRU01 for accelerated removal of four organophosphorus insecticides. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnoogyl 2021; 96: 1603–1610: The fungal preparation was highly effective in removing malathion as well as the other three OP insecticides. A storage period of 45 days may be considered ideal for maintaining the preparation in the active state

RESEARCH GRANTS:

Name of the ProjectFunding agency
Effect of nutrient limitations on the toxicity of some organophosphorus insecticides to the phytoplankton of Ansupa Lake.C.S.I.R. New Delhi
Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on membrane integrity of Chlorella vulgaris under nutrient limited conditions.I.C.A.R. New Delhi
Biodiversity characterization at landscape level of Eastern Ghats using remote sensing and GIS.Deptt of Biotech., Govt. of India & Deptt of Space, Govt. of India
Development and stabilization of tolerance of of Solanum melongena L. to the insecticide dimethoate.UGC, New Delhi
Development of fungal preparation for accelerated degradation of parathion and malathion in soil.DST, Govt of Odisha
New Production Modelling Studies in the Bay of Bengal water.ISRO, Ahmedabad
  1. Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1992) Differential effect of dimethoate toxicity to Anabaena doliolum with change in nutrient status. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 48: 223 – 229.
  2. Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1992) Growth pattern changes of Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena doloilum due to toxicity of dimethoate and endosulfan. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 49: 576 – 581.
  3. Mohanty R. C., Mohanty Liza and Mohapatra P. K. (1993) Effect of glucose, glutamate and 2 – oxoglutarate on mercury toxicity to Chlorella vulgaris. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 51: 130 -137.
  4. Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1994) Comparative toxicity of two pesticides to a green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Acta Bot. Hung. 38: 257 – 272.
  5. Dash R. C., Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1995) Salt induced changes in the growth of Chlorococcum humicolo and Scenedesmus bijugatus under nutrient limited cultures. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54: 695 – 702.
  6. Mohapatra P. K., Mohanty R. C. and Sinha Mahasweta (1995) Effect of organic carbon sources on the toxicity of mercury to Chlorococcum infusionum (Schrank.) Menegh. and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs. Acta. Hydrobiol. 37: 21 – 28.
  7. Mohapatra P. K., Schubert H. and Schiewer U. (1996) Short term toxicity effect of dimethoate on transthylakoid pH gradient of intact Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57: 722 – 728.
  8. Mohapatra P. K. and Schiewer U. (1996) Influence of dimethoate on structure and function of the natural phytoplankton assemblage of the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain reared in a laboratory. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 5: 31 – 36.
  9. Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1996) Comparative toxicity of insecticides on thylakoid of intact Scenedesmus bijugatus and Ankistrodesmus convolutus cells: Measurement of Chlorophyll a fluorescence. Acta Hydrobiol. 38: 109 – 116.
  10. Mohapatra P. K., Schubert H. and Schiewer U. (1997) Effect of dimethoate on photosynthesis and pigment fluorescence of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 36: 231 – 237.
  11. Mohapatra P. K., Schubert H. and Schiewer U. (1997) Effect of dimethoate on glucose and α-aminoisobutyric acid uptake by intact Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 35: 1093 – 1097.
  12. Mohanty Liza, Mohapatra D. K., Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1998) Mercury toxicity to Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck: Protection by amino acids. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 7: 21 – 25.
  13. Mohapatra P. K., Dash R. C., Panda S. S., Mishra R. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1998) Effects of nutrients at different salinities on growth of the freshwater green alga Scenedesmus bijugatus in water of Narendra Pond, Puri, Orissa. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 83: 297 – 304.
  14. Panda S. S., Mohapatra P. K. and Mohanty R. C. (1998) Comparative toxicity of two organophosphorus insecticides on membrane integrity of Chlorella vulgaris. I. Effect on membrane permeability. Microbiol. Res., 153: 363 – 368.
  15. Mohapatra P. K. and Schiewer U. (1998) Effect of dimethoate and chlorfenvinphos on plasma membrane integrity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 41: 269 – 274.
  16. Mohapatra P.K., Nayak Nibedita and Mohanty R.C. (2002) Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation on growth of some planktonic green algae. Indian. J. Microbiol. 42: 309-314.
  17. Mohapatra P.K., Patra S., Samantaray P.K. and Mohanty R.C. (2003) Effect of pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin on photosynthetic pigments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum Bhar. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 12: 207-212.
  18. Sudeshna S. and Mohapatra P. K. (2008) Application of concentration addition model for prediction of toxicity of binary combination of pesticides to Chlorella vulgaris. Plant Sci. Res. 30: 86-91.
  19. Mohapatra P. K., Khillar R., Hansdah B. and Mohanty R. C. (2010) Photosynthetic and fluorescence responses of Solanum melangena L. to field application of dimethoate. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 73: 78 – 83.
  20. Khillar R., Acharya S. and Mohapatra P. K. (2010) Development of tolerance of Solanum melangena L. to field application of dimethoate. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 85: 67–71.
  21. Chhotaray Debasmita, Mohapatra P. K. and Mishra C. S. K. (2010) Macronutrient availability and microbial population dynamics of soils under organic and conventional farming of legume crops. Bioscan 3: 643-650.
  22. Chhotaray Debasmita, Mohapatra P. K. and Mishra C. S. K. (2011) Farm management to control the soil microbial density and metabolic activities in rice-rice agroecosystem. Internat. J. Microbiol. Res. 2: 86-92.
  23. Chhotaray Debasmita, Mishra C. S. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2011) Diversity of bacteria and fungi in the gut and cast of tropical earthworm Glyphodrillus tuberosus isolated from conventional and organic fields. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 6(3): 303 – 311.
  24. Chhotaray Debasmita, Mohapatra P. K. and Mishra C. S. K. (2011) Soil macronutrient availability and microbial population dynamics of organic and conventional agroecosystems. Eur. J. Biol. Sci. 3: 44-51.
  25. Jena Sridevi, Acharya S. and Mohapatra P. K. (2012) Variation in Effects of Four OP Insecticides on Photosynthetic Pigment Fluorescence of Chlorella vulgaris Beij. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 80: 111-117.
  26. Chandrakala Y. and Mohapatra P. K. (2012) Tolerance of Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 to cypermethrin measured through photosynthetic pigment fluorescence. Plant Sci. Res. 34: 47-53.
  27. Mohapatra P. K. and Pattanaik Suchismita (2013) Origin, evolution and diversity of phosphotriesterase-An organophosphate degrading enzyme. Ecoscan 3: 123-134.
  28. Mohanty, A., Mohanty, C. R. and Mohapatra, P. K. (2013) Studies on the response of nutrient integrated management on growth and yield of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Res. J. Agric. Sci. 4: 383-385.
  29. Chhotaray Debasmita, Chandrakala Y., Mishra C. S. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2014) Farm practices influence the photosynthetic performance and plant efficiency of Oryza sativa L. Acta Physiol. Plant. 36: 1501–1511.
  30. Gupta S. S., Sharma J., Kumar G. R., Pandey G., Mohapatra P. K., Rawat A. K. S. and Rao Ch. V. (2014) Effect of Andrographis serpyllifolia Leaves Extract on Experimentally Induced Typhoid Using Salmonella Typhi. British J. Pharmaceut. Res. 4(2): 230-239.
  31. Mohapatra P. K. and Singh N. R. (2015) Teaching the Z-Scheme of electron transport in photosynthesis: a perspective. Photosynth. Res. 123: 105-114.
  32. Gupta S.S., Azmi L., Sukla I., Verma P., Mohapatra P. K. and Rao Ch. V. (2015). Structural and functional characteristics of flavonoid ingredients of Andrographis sepyllifolia leaves against experimentally induced gastroesophagial reflux disease. Int. J. Indigenous Med. Plants 48: 1803-1810.
  33. Gupta S.S., Azmi L., Sukla I., Pal L, Mohapatra P. K. and Rao Ch. V. (2016). Serpyllifolia leaves extract on streptozonocin induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Pharmacol. 3(8): 346-353.
  34. Gupta, S.S., Azmi, L., Mohapatra, P.K. and Rao, C.V. (2017) Flavonoids from whole plant of Euphorbia hirta and their evaluation against experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux disease in rats. Pharma. Mag. 13(49): 127-134.
  35. Dash, Saumya, Behera, R.K., Mohapatra, P.K., Sarangi, R.K., Raut, D., Pati, A. and Patnaik, L. (2017) Species composition of microzooplankton Tintinnid from the coastasl waters of Digha. Bay of Bengal. Environ. Monit. Assess. 189: 258 (11) (DOI; 10.1007//s 10661-017-5961-z).
  36. Kamila, P. K., Ray, A., Jena, S., Mohapatra, P. K. and Panda, P. C. (2017) Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Hypericum gaitii Haines – an endemic species of Eastern India. Nat. Product Res., DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1338283: 1-4.
  37. Gupta, S. S., Azmi, L., Shukla, I., Mohapatra, P. K. and Rao, Ch. V. (2017) Protective effect of standardized extract of Glycine max seeds against experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux disease in rats Indian J. Exp. Biol. 55: 768-775.
  38. Kamila, P. K., Ray, A., Sahoo, A., Nayak, S., Mohapatra, P. K. and Panda, P. C. (2017) Physicichemical characteristics of the Lasiococca comberi Haines seeds. Nat. Product. Res., 10.1080/14786419.2017.1408091: 1-4.
  39. Shasmita , Swain H., Ray A., Mohapatra P. K., Sarkar R. K. and Mukherjee A. K. (2018) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) mediated defence induction against bacterial leaf blight: probing through chlorophyll a fluorescence induction O–J–I–P transients. Func. Plant Biol., doi.org/10.1071/FP18117
  40. Mohapatra D., Rath S.K., and Mohapatra P. K. (2018) Bioremediation of insecticides by white-rot fungi and its environmental relevance. In. Prasad R. (ed.), Mycoremediation and Environmental Sustainability, Fungal Biology. Springer, pp. 181-212.
  41. Pati, A., Behera, R. K., Dash, S., Mohapatra, Sarangi, R. K., P.K., Raut, D. Mohanty, B. and Patnaik, L. (2018) First and new record of Ceratium vulture v. Sumatranum and Pediastrum species from coastal waters of Paradip, Bay of Bengal, East coast of India. Indian J. Geomar. Sci. 47 (6): 1169-1171.
  42. Shasmita, Mohapatra D., Mohapatra P. K., Naik S. K. and Mukherjee A. K. (2019) Priming with salicylic acid induces defense against bacterial blight disease by modulating rice plant photosystem II and antioxidant enzymes activity. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 108: 101427
  43. Dash S., Padhan S., Rajhans G., Mohapatra P. K., Sarangi R. K., Raut  D., Mohanty B., Nayak S. and Patnaik L. (2019) Abundance and diversity of plankton in the coastal waters of Chandipur, Bay of Bengal. Russian J.  Mar. Sci. 45: 252-261.
  44. Pattanaik   S., Chanda   A., Sahoo R.K., Swain S., Satapathy D.R.,  Panda C.R., Choudhury S.B. and Mohapatra P.K.  (2019) Contrasting intra-annual inorganic carbon dynamics and air–water CO2 exchange in Dhamra and Mahanadi Estuaries of northern Bay of Bengal, India. Limnology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10201-019-00592-0 
  45. Swatch G.K., Singh D.P., Khattar J.I.S. and Mohapatra P.K. (2020) Interaction of pretilachlor with PSII activity of the cyanobacterium Desmonostoc muscorum PUPCCC 405.10. J. Basic Microbiol. 1-11. DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201900706
  46. Kamila, P. K., Das, P. K., Mohapatra, P. K. and Panda, P. C. (2020) Effect of auxins on rooting of stem cuttings in Hypericum gaitii. J. Herb Spice Med. Plants https://doi.org/10.1080/10496475.2020.1749207.
  47. Shasmita, Samal, P., Mohapatra, P.K., Naik, S.K. and Mukherjee A.K. (2020) Improved photosystem II and defense enzymes activity in rice (Oryza sativa) by biopriming against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Funct. Plant Biol. https://doi.org/10.1071/ 
  48. Acharya S., Pradhan C., Patra D. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2020) Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidative properties of different extracts of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza L.  Eur. J. Integr. Med. 36: 101140.
  49. Mohapatra D., Rath S. K. and Mohapatra P. K. (2021) Evaluating a preparation of malathion tolerant Aspergillus niger MRU01 for accelerated removal of four organophosphorus insecticides. J Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 96(6): 1603-1610.
  50. Pattanaik, S., Chanda A. and Mohapatra P. K. (2021) Aquatic biogeochemistry of the estuarine and coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal: Impact of physical forcing and extreme atmospheric events. In: Das S., and Ghosh T. (eds.), Estuarine Biogeochemical Dynamics of the East Coast of India, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 31-44.

Teaching :

  1. Photosynthesis and Enzymology
  2. Photomorphogenesis
  3. Algae and Cyanobacteria
  4. Biostatistics